Wednesday, October 9, 2013


Timeline of Monsanto's Dark History

Sweet 'N Low1901: Monsanto was founded in St. Louis, Missouri by John Francis Queeny, a 30-year veteran of the pharmaceutical industry. Queeny funded the start-up with capital from Coca-Cola (saccharin). Founder John Francis Queeny named Monsanto Chemical Works after his wife, Olga Mendez Monsanto. Queeny's father in law was Emmanuel Mendes de Monsanto, wealthy financier of a sugar company active in Vieques, Puerto Rico and based in St. Thomas in the Danish West Indies.

1902: Monsanto manufactures its first product, the artificial sweetener Saccharin
which Monsanto sold to the Coca-Cola Company. The U.S. government later 
files suit over the safety of Saccharin - but loses.

1904: Queeny persuaded family and friends to invest $15000, Monsanto has 
strong ties to The Walt Disney Company, it having financial backing from the 
Order's Bank of America founded in Jesuit-ruled San Francisco by Italian-
American Roman-Catholic Knight of Malta Amadeo Giannini.

1905: Monsanto company was also producing caffeine and vanillin and was 
beginning to turn a profit.

1906: The government's monopoly on meat regulation began, when in response
 to public panic resulting from the publication of Upton Sinclair's The Jungle
Teddy Roosevelt signed legislation mandating federal meat inspections. Today, 
Salatin claims that agricultural regulation favors multinational corporations 
such as ConAgra and Monsanto because the treasonous science that supports 
the USDA regulatory framework is paid for by these corporations, which continue
to give large grants to leading schools and research facilities.

1908: John Francis Queeny leaves his part-time job as the new branch manager
 of another drug house the Powers-Weightman-Rosegarten Company to become 
Monsanto's full-time president.

1912: Agriculture again came to the forefront with the creation of the DeKalb 
County Farm Bureau, one of the first organizations of its kind. In the 1930s the  
DeKalb AgResearch Corporation (today MONSANTO) marketed its first hybrid
seed corn.

1914–1918: During WWI, cut off from imported European chemicals, Monsanto 
was forced to manufacture it's own, and it's position as a leading force in the 
chemical industry was assured.Unable to import foreign supplies from Europe during
World War I, Queeny turned to manufacturing his own raw materials. It was then 
his scientists discovered that the Germans, in anticipation of the war, had ripped  
out vital pages from their research books which explained various chemical

1915: Business expanded rapidly. Monsanto sales surpass the $1,000,000 mark for 
the first time.

1917: U.S. government sues Monsanto over the safety of Monsanto's original product, 
saccharin. Monsanto eventually won, after several years in court.

1917: Monsanto added more and more products: vanillin, caffeine, and drugs used as  
sedatives and laxatives.

1917: Bayer, The German competition cut prices in an effort to drive Monsanto out of 
business, but failed. Soon, Monsanto diversified into phenol (a World War I -era 
antiseptic), and aspirin when Bayer's German patent expired in 1917. Monsanto 
began making aspirin, and soon became the largest manufacturer world-wide.

1918: With the purchase of an Illinois acid company, Monsanto began to widen the 
scope of its factory operations.

Mar 15, 1918: More than 500 of the 750 employees of the Monsanto Chemical Works, 
which has big contracts for the Government, went on strike, forcing the plant to dose 

Aug 15, 1919: Thereafter much of it was declared surplus, and a contract was entered 
into with the Monsanto Chemical Co., of St. Louis, Mo., by which contract the Director 
of Sales authorized the Monsanto Co. to sell for the United States its surplus phenol
estimated at 27521242 pounds, for a market price to be fixed from time to time by the 
representative of the contracting officer of the United States, but with a minimum price 
of 9 cents a pound.

1919: Monsanto established its presence in Europe by entering into a partnership with  
Graesser's Chemical Works at Cefn Mawr near Ruabon, Wales to produce vanillin,  
salicylic acid, aspirin and later rubber.

1920s: In its third decade, Monsanto expanded into basic industrial chemicals like  
sulfuric acid and other chemicals.

Jan 5, 1920: The petitioner was authorized to sell two tracts of land in the Common 
Fields of Cahokia, St. Clair County, containing 2.403 acres and 3.46 acres respectively, 
to the Monsanto Chemical Works for the sum of $1500.

1920-1921: A postwar depression during the early 1920s affected profits, but by the 
time John Queeny turned over Monsanto to Edgar in 1928 the financial situation was 
much brighter.

1926: Environmental policy was generally governed by local governments, Monsanto 
Chemical Company founded and incorporated the town of Monsanto, later renamed  
Sauget, Illinois, to provide a more business friendly environment for one of its chemical 
plants. For years, the Monsanto plant in Sauget was the nation's largest producer of 
polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). And although polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 
were banned in the 1970s, they remain in the water along Dead Creek in Sauget.

1927: Monsanto had over 2,000 employees, with offices across the country and in 

1927: Shortly after its initial listing on the New York Stock Exchange, Monsanto moved to 
acquire 2 chemical companies that specialized in rubber. Other chemicals were added in 
later years, including detergents.

1928: John Queeny's son Edgar Monsanto Queeny takes over the Monsanto company. 
Monsanto had gone public, a move that paved the way for future expansion. At this time, 
Monsanto had 55 shareholders, 1,000 employees, and owned a small company in Britain.

1929: Monsanto acquires Rubber Services Laboratories. Charlie Sommer joined 
Monsanto, and later became president of Monsanto in 1960.

October 1929: The folks at Monsanto Co. fished through their records, but they couldn't 
find out why the company's symbol is MTC. Monsanto went public in October 1929, just 
a few days before the great stock market crash. Some symbols are holdovers from the 
19th century, when telegraph operators used single-letter symbols for the most active 
stocks to conserve wire space, says the New York Stock Exchange. Mergers, acquisitions 
and failure have caused many single-letter symbols to change

1929: Monsanto began production of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) in the United 
States.  PCBs were considered an industrial wonder chemical - an oil that would not 
burn, was impervious to degradation and had almost limitless applications. Today PCBs 
are considered one of the gravest chemical threats on the planet. PCBs, widely used 
as lubricants, hydraulic fluids, cutting oils, waterproof coatings and liquid sealants, are 
potent carcinogens and have been implicated in reproductive, developmental and 
immune system disorders. The world's center of PCB manufacturing was Monsanto's 
plant on the outskirts of East St. Louis, Illinois, which has the highest rate of fetal death 
and immature births in the state.
Monsanto Pirates 
Monsanto produced PCBs for over 50 years and they are now virtually omnipresent in the blood and tissues of humans and wildlife around the globe - from the polar bears at the north pole to the penguins in Antarctica. These days PCBs are banned from production and some experts say there should be no acceptable level of PCBs allowed in the environment. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency says, "PCB has been demonstrated to cause cancer, as well as a variety of other adverse health effects on the immune system, reproductive system, nervous system and endocrine system." But the evidence of widespread contamination from PCBs and related chemicals has been accumulating from 1965 onwards and internal company papers show that Monsanto knew about the PCB dangers from early on.
The PCB problem was particularly severe in the town of Anniston in Alabama where discharges from the local Monsanto plant meant residents developed PCB levels hundreds or thousands of times the average. As The Washington Post reported, "for nearly 40 years, while producing the 
now-banned industrial coolants known as PCBs at a local factory, Monsanto Co. routinely 
discharged toxic waste into a west Anniston creek and dumped millions of pounds of 
PCBs into oozing open-pit landfills. And thousands of pages of Monsanto documents : 
many emblazoned with warnings such as 'CONFIDENTIAL: Read and Destroy' : show 
that for decades, the corporate giant concealed what it did and what it knew."

Ken Cook of the Environmental Working Group says that based on the Monsanto 
documents made public, Monsanto "knew the truth from the very beginning. They lied 
about it. They hid the truth from their neighbors." One Monsanto memo explains their 
justification: "We can't afford to lose one dollar of business." Eventually Monsanto was 
found guilty of conduct "so outrageous in character and extreme in degree as to go  
beyond all possible bounds of decency so as to be regarded as atrocious and utterly 
intolerable in civilized society".

1930s: DeKalb AgResearch Corporation (today MONSANTO) marketed its first 
**HYBRID** seed corn (maize).

1933: Incorporated as Monsanto Chemical Company

1934: "I recognized my two selves: a crusading idealist and a cold, granitic believer in the 
law of the jungle" - Edgar Monsanto Queeny, Monsanto chairman, 1943-63, "The Spirit of 

1935: Edward O'Neal (who became chairperson in 1964) came to Monsanto with the 
acquisition of the Swann Corporation. Monsanto goes into the soap and detergents 
industry, starts producing phosphorus.

1938: Monsanto goes into the plastic business (the year after DuPont helped ban hemp 
because it was superior to their new NYLON product made from Rockefeller OIL). 
Monsanto became involved in plastics when it completely took over Fiberloid, one of the 
oldest nitrocellulose production companies, which had a 50% stake in Shawinigan 

1939: Monsanto purchased Resinox, a subsidiary of Corn Products, and Commercial 
Solvents, which specialized in phenolic resins. Thus, just before the war, Monsanto's 
plastics interests included phenol-formaldehyde thermosetting resins, cellulose and 
vinyl plastics.

1939-1945: Monsanto conducts research on uranium for the Manhattan Project in 
Dayton, Ohio. Dr. Charles Thomas, who later served as Monsanto's chairman of the 
board, was present at the first test explosion of the atomic bomb. During World War II, 
Monsanto played a significant role in the Manhattan Project to develop the atom bomb. 
Monsanto operated the Dayton Project, and later Mound Laboratories in Miamisburg, 
Ohio, for the Manhattan Project, the development of the first nuclear weapons and, 
after 1947, the Atomic Energy Commission.

.... to be continued.... 

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